Thisproject beganby chance, after seeingsome plane realizations on the net. I usedwhatIhad at home,includinga new old Hirch (made in Germany) iron andchipbreakerthat my friend Cirogave mea coupleof yearsago.
Theplanebodyisash;I really like it, solid, compact, enough easy towork.Thesole andwedge arewenge. Thelight-dark contrastis very nice.
The wood button used to releasethe cutting groupand setting theblade always attracted me,so Iplaced a wenge oneinthe back of the plane.
Not havinga right sized ash piece, I proceededto gluing upthreepiecesof approx. 3cm thick.
Iexcavatedthe throat cavitybyForstnerbitsas deep aspossible,continuingwith a1" Japanese-styleFirmerchisel (Atsunomi). To get theexactbedangle(60°)I used the chisel with abeech guideblockclampedto thetop body.
Istamped"S60" on the back. S meansSmootherand 60 is forindicating theseat angle. To obtainthe moldingson the cornersIusedthe belt sander, takingthe planein contactwith the abrasive tape for fewseconds. I obtained the wenge button drilling it by a cup saw.
Adouble solereally helpstoget avery tight mouth. Thewengeis a wood veryresistant to wear, but hastendencyto chip, sobe very carefulduringchiselling around the mouth.
Thesole has beenleveled onsandpaper glued to aflat surface(120 and 180 Grit).
Yes, I waited a few years before getting such a kind of plane, believed to be among the best ones. The famous Norris, Spiers etc. have dangerous prices, so I contented myself with a probably auto-built plane.
This specimenisalmost 8incheslong(20 cm); the plane bodyhas the typical form (coffin) of smoothing Britishplanes, withmahoganyinfill woodand amahogany handle.Its weightis 1.8kg,400grams more than aStanley3 wich hasmore or less a comparable length. It has a brass lever cap,as well asthe clamping screw.Alittle brass plateis screwedon the front wood insert,probably for givingan aesthetic additionaltouch (debatable).The blade(21 / 8"/54mm)is markedHEARNSHAWBROS(1881-1960).
The toolswas ingood condition,despite someage signs andsome oldrepairs.In particular it seemsthe handlehas been repaired orreplaced.Howeverit has beenreinforcedby screws,hidden by caps. It is very solid. That is why Idecided to leavethe planein its original condition, worryingonlyof blade andsole thatrequired theattention necessaryto re-putthe toolat work.
Unliketraditionalmetalplanes(likeBailey), the sole lappingtends to openthe mouth, sowe must actonlywhen absolutely necessaryand with greatcaution.
In my case,the solewasalmost perfectlyflat andthe workon 180 Gritabrasive paperhadvirtuallynoimpacton the mouth width (only 0.25 mm).The bladeis bedded to 45°.The blade bevelwas about30 degrees and so Ireground it, withoutmicrobevel.Thechipbreakertook a little leveling job on the side in contact with the blade.
I rounded the cutting edgeat both endsto avoid the plane can leave marks onto work pieces.Eventhe sole edgeswereroundedcrawlingthe plane and keeping it inclined in respect to abrasive surface.Themouth requestedfiling assistanceto adaptthe openingto the cutting edge.
When matches were not common, you could use a special plane to transform pieces of scrap wood into supercoiled chips, suitable for using them to take fire from a brazier or a fireplace and transfer it to a candle or other. In a nineteenth century country house this tool should have been quite common.
The model vary, but the concept is more or less the same: a cone-shaped mouth and a skewed blade that allows to side chip ejection in the strongly twisted form.
The plane I found is home-made (I newer saw this plane in wooden plane-maker lists); the wood is mahogany. The sole was warped so I had to remove the side fence to straighten it properly. I put a patch to tighten a little bit the mouth. The wedge is extended almost to the cutting edge and its end is an integral part of the conical mouth.
The blade is bedded to 42 ° and the blade skewed at 45 degrees. The asymmetrical fence helps to angle the tool even more and produce spiral chips.
I tried to light one: it burns slowly and does not burn out easily. Perfect!
Thesliding bevelis auseful toolwhen you need toget adifferent anglefrom 90°,being the blade full adjustable.A pivotscrewallows you to lockthe bladein place.Itcan be screweddirectly into athreadcut into thebrass side metal plate, orbeprovided with awing nut. Another possibility, in myopinionthe best, is when, insteadof the wing nut, thereis alever with athreaded hole, very convenientand easy to operatewith a simple thumb movement.One of mytwo squaresadopted thescrewtightening systemwithoutblocking nut and needs a screwdriverfor tighteningandloosening.
So it waseasy to changethe system andI hadthe opportunity forreplacingthesteel screwwithbrass fittings, a metal which contrastsnicelywith themahogany wood.
The shooting board task is to allow planing a piece square to the surface that rests on the table. There are various models, with different building solutions. The board I am proposing is useful for planing and square end grain sides or to finish a 45° angle, such as is necessary for frame assembling. As the shooting board fundamental characteristic is plan and angle accuracy, using pre-worked material can be convenient.
I used lamellar beech, but plywood is a good alternative. For the base I used a 3 cm thick board, while the plan upon which the
workpiece is held is 2 cm thick. The length is about 60 cm, width about 25 cm. The support board is narrower to make room for the plane side.
After screwing the upper board to the base, I installed two holders (3 x 4 cm section) that will serve for workpiece supporting. Their precise positioning is critical for proper shooting board working. The pieces are screwed flush with the upper board edges and have an elongated hole at the rear to allow a fine angle adjustment. Place the two holders to exactly 90 and 45 degrees respect to the sliding edge. Chamfer the holder rear edges (not that one where the piece rests) in order to prevent their damage when the plane will produce the first shots.
Another holder is placed under the board so that it can be hooked to the workbench and/or locked in the vice. In my case I have used two holders, so I can firmly held the board between the vice and the bench well. A useful operation will be to cut a groove at the plan intersection in order to collect chips and dust and avoiding problems with plane sliding.
The first shots will remove some shavings from the sliding side, but only until the lateral sole portion under the blade will not come in contact with the edge.
The Stanley 113 is a plane for planing curved surfaces. It has a flexible sole, able to assume a concave or convex shape, with a variable radius regulated by turning a large knob. A toothed gear mechanism guarantees the correct sole movement. The #113 iron is identical to the Stanley #3 one, the size being 1 3 / 4 " (4.4 cm).
The lever cap and the cap iron are different from those of #3, so you need pay attention to this detail when buying it. My # 113 was in good condition, just a lot of surface rust. I proceeded to disassemble the plane into its parts and treat them with a vinegar bath.The flexible sole should be dropped from the metal arms using a punch. The sole is welded to a dovetail shaped piece; it fits in the body plane. To take it apart I first lubricated with a descaler (WD40) and then gently hammered it using a punch of a suitable form (for the purpose I used a more little hammer, placing a smaller cardboard piece to protect from blows; alternatively you can use a wood piece of suitable form).
If your sole does not want to move, better stop the action for avoiding damages to the cast iron parts, very difficult to repair! A common #113 defect is a mismatch between the iron seat and the mouth. The blade does not not rest properly and could create problems in planing (chattering). To solve this problem, I simply added a
couple of shims (business cards are great) on the plane seat. The flexible sole should be free from rust. Use sandpaper attached to a flat surface, paying particular attention to the mouth area. The plane must be used with straight shots following the workpiece horizontal axis. It is also useful for the chamfer job.